Category Archives: April 2019

Bacterial Streak and Black Chaff Small Grains

The bacterium that causes bacterial streak and black chaff disease in wheat and other small grains is Xanthomonas translucens.  In Texas, other species of Xanthomas cause leaf diseases of cotton, tomato and pepper.  In the food industry, Xanthomonas species are grown to produce a carbohydrate, xanthan gum, which is used to thicken foods such as ice cream.  Xanthomonas translucens has four known pathovars.  A pathovar is a sub-species designation that refers to strains of the bacterium that differ in their host range.  Three pathovars infect wheat and various… Read More →

Sorghum/Sudan Forage & Sugarcane Aphid

Texas grain sorghum farmers have dealt with sugarcane aphid levels to varying degrees for the past five years.  In grain sorghum, most seed companies now have commercial hybrids they believe have some tolerance, even resistance to sugarcane aphid.  Regardless of a grain sorghum hybrid’s potential tolerance (let alone resistance) to SCA, all grain sorghums are assumed susceptible at some level and must be scouted. What about sorghum/sudans?  This forage class is popular in Texas for both grazing and haying with high potential for regrowth.  This regrowth reduces production… Read More →

Sesame Production Update for Texas

  Submitted by Dr. Calvin Trostle, Extension Agronomy, TAMU Dept. of Soil & Crop Sciences, Lubbock, 806-746-6101, May 8, 2019   Sesame is a drought tolerant, heat tolerant crop that has a relatively low number of pests—either insects or plant diseases—compared to other Texas crops. Sesaco Corp. ( has offered Texas growers indehiscent (non-shattering) sesame for over 15 years. Compared to then today’s sesame varieties are a slightly shorter in maturity. Non-shattering varieties enable combine harvest. Though they are called non-shattering, some losses do occur. This is… Read More →

Early Season Weed Control Options for Peanut

Emi Kimura, State Extension Peanut Specialist, Vernon, TX Josh McGinty, Extension Agronomist at Corpus Christi, TX James Grichar, Senior Research Scientist at Yoakum, TX Pete Dotray, Weed Scientist at Lubbock, TX   Best Management Practices (BMPs) for peanut production include effective season-long weed management.  Below are four weed management principles in peanut production. Start clean Use residual herbicides Timely postemergence applications Know your weeds In the April article, we discussed the importance of preplant burndown (PP), preplant incorporated (PPI), and preemergence (PRE) herbicide applications for reducing early-season weed… Read More →

Increase Wheat Grain Protein via Late Season Nitrogen Application

by Brandon J. Gerrish, Small Grains Program Specialist, College Station, 207-432-1481,; Clark Neely, Small Grains Extension Specialist, College Station, 979-862-1412, With harvest rapidly approaching, it is time to make the final management decisions that can maximize wheat revenue. In addition to controlling insects and applying fungicides, growers may want to consider making a late season nitrogen application. Despite an abundance of wheat worldwide, there is a shortage of high protein wheat which has generated protein premiums at delivery points across Texas the last several years. On… Read More →

Importance of Preplant Incorporated and Preemergence Herbicides in Peanut Production

by Emi Kimura, James Grichar, Pete Dotray, and Josh McGinty Best Management Practices (BMPs) for peanut production include effective season-long weed management. Below are four weed management principles in peanut production. 1. Start clean 2. Use residual herbicides 3. Timely postemergence applications 4. Know your weeds Early season weed management is most important which means weed control later in the season should be easier. There are roughly five critical herbicide application timings in peanut production (Table 1). These application timings include preplant burndown (PP), preplant incorporated (PPI), preemergence… Read More →

Wheat Hay vs. Grain: A comparison of economic opportunity

by  Reagan Noland, Extension Agronomist, San Angelo | 325-657-7330 | Bill Thompson, Extension Economist, San Angelo | 325-657-7306 | Clark Neely, Small Grains Extension Specialist, College Station | 979-862-1412 | Early spring is an important time to assess the wheat crop and determine end goals and marketing options that will maximize revenue. Recent declines in wheat grain price may make positive returns above total cost impossible. This changes the near-term objective to maximizing revenue per acre, relative to additional agronomic inputs and harvest costs. Growers… Read More →

Adjuvants: Why are adjuvants important and what is the difference between adjuvants?

by Jourdan M. Bell, Agronomist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension – Amarillo Peter Dotray, Weed Scientist, Texas A&M AgriLife Research and Extension Service – Lubbock James Grichar, Senior Research Scientist, Texas A&M AgriLife – Corpus Christi Adjuvants are products used to enhance herbicide activity. They act as an herbicide activator or stabilizer by modifying the physical properties of spray solutions. There are numerous adjuvants on the market including nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, methylated seed oils, buffering agents, antifoam agents, drift control agents, and fertilizers; consequently, there… Read More →